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Treating Children and Adolescents with ADHD: An Overview of Empirically Based Treatments - Test
by Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D., ABPP

Course content © copyright 2011-2015 by Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D., ABPP. All rights reserved.

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1. Important developments in treatment of ADHD over the past decade include: Help
Consensus statements from major professional and scientific organizations about appropriate treatment of ADHD.
Proliferation in the variety of medications used to treat ADHD.
Some major additions to the research literature on treatment of adolescents with ADHD.
All of the above.
2. The term "effectiveness" refers to treatment success as it is found in: Help
Controlled studies at major universities with expert clinicians.
Naturalistic settings (e.g. clinics, hospitals, and private practices) involving controlled studies supervised by the clinicians typically practicing in those settings.
Both of the above.
None of the above.
3. Research is suggesting that the attention problems evident in ADHD are part of a larger domain of cognitive activities known as: Help
Executive functioning, and especially working memory.
Visuo-spatial reasoning.
4. Rather than cognitive reflectiveness, the impulsiveness in ADHD is mainly in the capacity to: Help
Think about their past experiences.
Inhibit or delay prepotent responses.
Coordinate motor programs.
Get along with peers.
5. With regard to the developmental changes that occur in the two ADHD symptom dimensions, which of the following is correct? Help
Neither of the two symptom dimensions decline significantly with age.
Both of the symptom dimensions show significant reductions with age.
Hyperactivity across the elementary years declines significantly while problems with attention persist at relatively stable levels.
Inattention across the elementary years declines significantly while problems with hyperactivity persist at relatively stable levels.
6. The DSM diagnostic criteria for ADHD were based: Help
In part on the results of scientific field trials with samples of clinic-referred patients.
Entirely on rating scales developed earlier.
Entirely on expert clinician opinion.
Entirely on the majority vote of the members of the ADHD committee.
7. With regard to sex and age differences in symptoms of ADHD in children, which of the following is correct? Help
There are no sex differences but there are age differences.
There are sex differences but no age differences.
There are no sex or age differences.
There are both sex and age differences.
8. In childhood, the sex ratio for ADHD is approximately: Help
3:1, females to males.
3:1, males to females.
7:1, males to females.
No significant difference
9. The majority of children with ADHD appear to be identifiable by their caregivers as deviant from normal as early as: Help
3-4 years old
10-12 years old
12-16 years old
10. By entry into formal schooling (6 years of age), most children with ADHD have become: Help
Normal compared to peers.
Psychopathic in acting out their aggression.
Deviant from normal peers in their poor sustained attention, impulsivity, and restlessness.
On the Autism Spectrum of Disorders.
11. In terms of outgrowing ADHD, it is reasonable to conclude that: Help
All cases diagnosed in childhood persist into the adolescent years.
All cases diagnosed in childhood recover by age 16 years.
A small percentage of cases diagnosed in childhood outgrow or recover from their disorder by adolescence.
None of the above
12. ADHD teens, compared to those without ADHD, are: Help
More likely to have substance experimentation and abuse.
Less likely to have substance experimentation and abuse.
Do not differ from normal in rates of substance experimentation and abuse.
There is no data available
13. ADHD is associated with an increased risk of impairment in which of the following domains of major life activities? Help
Medical and health risks, such as accidental injuries
Delays in motor development
Learning disabilities and academic performance
All of the above
14. As many as ____ percent of clinically diagnosed ADHD children may have at least one other disorder and ____ percent have at least two other disorders. Which percentages below best describe these risks? Help
25 and 15
60 and 70
87 and 67
ADHD children are not at risk for other disorders.
15. Parents of ADHD children, compared to typical parents, report: Help
Significantly greater stress only during the toddler years.
Significantly greater stress only during the adolescent years.
Significantly greater stress in their parental roles across childhood and adolescence.
No increase in stress levels.
16. Studies evaluating the impact of stimulant medication on parent-child interactions (i.e., directive and negative behavior of mothers), suggest that these interactions may be, in part: Help
A reaction to their children's noncompliance and poor self-control.
The cause of their children's noncompliance and poor self-control.
Unrelated to their children's noncompliance and poor self-control.
Noncompliance and self-control are not problems in ADHD children.
17. ADHD is caused mainly by: Help
Poor parenting.
Excessive media and Internet use by children.
Genetic factors and disrupted neurological development.
Excess sugar in the child's diet.
18. In meta-analyses of the burgeoning neuropsychological literature on ADHD, the greatest support is for difficulties not only with the cardinal domains of inattention and inhibition, but also: Help
Social relations.
Artistic ability.
Finger tapping.
Working memory.
19. Barkley's model of ADHD argues that the disorder arises from developmental delays in: Help
Behavioral inhibition.
Executive functioning.
All of the above.
20. Barkley's model of ADHD includes which of the following components? Help
Inhibition and Self-Regulation of Affect
Verbal and Nonverbal Working Memory
Motivation and Arousal
All of the Above
21. Innovations in effective ADHD treatments over the past decade have largely been confined to new: Help
Dietary remedies.
Models of parent training.
Delivery systems for ADHD medications.
Classroom management strategies.
22. ADHD: Help
Can be cured permanently by existing treatments.
Can be effectively managed in most cases using existing treatments.
Has no effective treatments currently available for its management.
Requires no treatments because it will be outgrown by adolescence, if not earlier.
23. In Barkley's model, ADHD is viewed as being a disorder of: Help
Performance - doing what one knows rather than knowing what to do.
Knowledge - knowing what to do.
Skills - not practicing self-regulatory behavior often enough.
Language - not understanding what other people say to the child.
24. ADHD is to time: Help
What nearsightedness is to spatial vision.
What farsightedness is to spatial vision.
ADHD has no relationship to sense or use of time.
None of the above
25. Which of the following are deemed to be effective evidence-based treatments for ADHD and its impairments at this time? Help
Self-control training (teaching children self-management skills such as self-speech)
Traditional social skills training delivered in groups in clinical settings
Mega-vitamin and other dietary supplements
None of the above
26. The provision of treatment services to children with ADHD has increased dramatically over the past 20 years, owing in large part to the: Help
Recognition by special education laws that ADHD is an eligible condition.
Growth of formally organized advocacy groups.
Increased continuing education programs for educational and mental health professionals.
All of the above
27. The three most commonly used drugs for managing ADHD are: Help
Anti-convulsants, anti-psychotics, and anti-hypertensives.
Stimulants, nonstimulants, and anti-hypertensives.
Anti-depressants, anti-coagulants, and antacids.
Stimulants, atypical anti-psychotics, and anti-anxiety drugs.
28. The rate of stimulant drug use in the U.S. has: Help
Remained unchanged for decades.
Fallen off markedly since the Ritalin scare stories of the 1980s.
Increased dramatically according to research by Safer, Zito, and colleagues.
Stimulants are not legal to prescribe in the U.S.
29. Stimulants, such as methylphenidate and amphetamines, are: Help
Rapidly acting, producing results within 30-90 minutes of ingestion.
Associated with annoying side effects, such as insomnia and loss of appetite, in some cases.
Available in both immediate and sustained release preparations.
All of the above.
30. The behavioral improvements produced by stimulants are in: Help
Sustained attention.
Impulse control.
Reduction of task irrelevant activity.
All of the above.
31. The most frequently occurring side effects of the stimulants are: Help
Severe weight gain, sleepiness, and motor incoordination.
Mild insomnia and appetite reduction, stomachache, headache, and dizziness or jitteriness.
Moodiness, depression, and risk of suicide.
None of the above.
32. A major threat to the effectiveness of ADHD medications is: Help
Inability to combine them safely with grapefruit juice.
Inability to combine them with any other medications.
A tendency for adolescents to discontinue use of the medication.
None of the above.
33. Atomoxetine is highly selective as an: Help
Inhibitor of norepinephrine reuptake.
Inhibitor of dopamine reuptake.
Inhibitor of epinephrine reuptake.
Agent for increasing serotonin in the brain.
34. Regarding the medication atomoxetine (ATX) for ADHD management, which of the following is correct? Help
ATX is not yet FDA-approved and can only be used off-label.
ATX is effective in reducing ADHD symptoms in over 70% of cases.
ATX treats only the symptoms of oppositional behavior associated with ADHD.
ATX should only be used in rare cases of ADHD given its profile of harmful side effects.
35. The anti-hypertensive drug Guanfacine XR (Intuniv) is: Help
Not approved by the FDA for use in treating ADHD.
Was approved by the FDA for use in treating ADHD in 2009.
Will be approved by the FDA for use in treating ADHD by 2015.
Is not useful for treating ADHD.
36. The next step in the choice of medications when the stimulants atomoxetine or guanfacine XR prove unsuccessful may be an off-label trial of: Help
Tricyclic antidepressants.
The antidepressant buproprion.
Either of the above.
None of the above.
37. Direct applications of contingency management methods: Help
Show highly limited generalization and maintenance of treatment effects.
Have been repeatedly evaluated for use with teens.
Are as or more effective as stimulant medication for managing ADHD.
Are necessary to correct the poor social learning that underlies ADHD.
38. The rationale for Barkley's version of parent training as applied to children with ADHD, however, is twofold. One reason is that ADHD children: Help
May have deficits self-regulation and specifically rule-governed behavior.
Have learned their symptoms via social learning theory.
Do not respond to parent training.
None of the above
39. Concerning training parents in behavior management methods: Help
The training is not effective.
The treatment has been studied more in teens than in children with ADHD.
The research seems to support the use of parent training for ADHD children.
The treatment is more effective than stimulant medication.
40. Family training with teens having ADHD: Help
Changes ADHD symptoms as much as ODD symptoms.
Is less effective than for elementary-aged ADHD children.
Produces no worsening of family conflict in any portion of families.
None of the above.
41. Effective classroom management methods include: Help
Home-based contingencies for in-class behavior and performance.
Curriculum accomodations, such as shorter work periods.
All of the above.
42. When contingency management methods are used in school for ADHD, they can improve: Help
Disruptive behavior.
Academic productivity.
Academic accuracy.
All of the above.
43. Given the extant research findings for CBT of limited effect sizes in most clinical studies and the absence of treatment effects in the largest study, this treatment is given a grade of: Help
44. Parent training and family based training for ADHD children and teens: Help
Is effective in helping some families to reduce parent-child conflict.
Is unsafe and ineffective.
Should not be done without combining it with ADHD medications.
Can only be effective if both parents are willing to attend treatment sessions.
45. Which of the following is not an effective or proven treatment for ADHD? Help
Stimulant medication
Parent training in child management
Sensory integration training
Classroom behavior modification
46. Working memory training, such as CogMed, and other types of cognitive rehabilitation training, is highly effective at: Help
Reducing ADHD symptoms in natural settings in most cases.
Improving working memory across all natural settings.
Improving the learning disorders linked to ADHD.
None of the above.
47. Barkley's 10 Step Parent Training Program includes which of the following lessons: Help
Establishing a home token economy, daily phone calls to teachers, removing electronics
Enhancing parental attention, time-outs for all misbehaviors, ignoring during independent play
Parent education, attending to compliance, and managing noncompliance
All of the above
48. To be most effective in managing ADHD in school settings, rules and instructions given to ADHD children should be: Help
Clear, brief, and directed personally to the child.
Delivered through more visible or external modes of presentation.
Both of the above.
Neither of the above.



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